When Fate Summons: A Biography of General Richard Butler, 1743-1791

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This monograph is the first new study of a pivotal character in colonial, revolutionary and federal relations with the Amerindian tribes of western Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio and the old Northwest. Butler, an Irish born merchant, trader and soldier on the uneasy borderlands of European settlement and tribal territory, made his way to influence via a keen linguistic ability, strong sympathies for native peoples (prior to the revolution) and an instinctual military ability that brought him a colonel-ship in the Revolution and a major general ship in the tiny new federal army that confronted renewed hostilities during the Confederation and Federal period.

Professor Ward skilfully tells Butler's story and summons current research that investigates the beginning of ''surrender and re-grant'' politics towards tribal leaders and attempts to destroy patriot forces and chiefs (such as Tecumseh) by leaders of the early republic. Ward's research includes the major Indian treaties undertaken by the US Government up to 1792 and these are included in the volume Ward also discusses land politics when it comes to American settlement and the efforts made to create a successful Indian commission under Washington's first administration.

Finally, Ward discusses Butler's death in battle along with the defeat of St. Clair's expedition and the rise of ''Mad'' Anthony Wayne and a policy of extermination to all resisters.

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Academica Press
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